The Inca Empire - TAHUANTINSUYU, THE YEAR OF 1532
Francisco Pizarro only had a little more than twohundred men (62 horsemen and 106 footsoldiers) setting ashore at the coast of the Inca Empire September 24, 1532.
The illiterate pig farmer Pizzaro was to be a man in the history of Men.
Few historical events are so cruel as the conquest of the Andean Inca Empire, the invading force with supperior weapons and a unbeliveable luck, slaughering down the pride of Andes culture. The only emotions shown by the Spanish was greed and fear, and they lacked any principle of humanity or code of behaviour. The betrayal was discovered by the Incas too late to save them from perishing into history. The sivilwar between the half brothers Huascar and Atahualpa after their fathers death, was weakening the whole empire, and at this scene entered the Spanish. Several years earlier a virus disease, maybe smallpocks from the European settlements in the Caribbean had struck the empire, and one thinks Inka Huayna Capac died from this disease. Atahualpa in Quito heading the imperial army was forcing the fact of being the indisputable Inca, but was never tradisionally and sermonial crowned inka in the capital of Qosqo. In Qosqo sat his halfbrother Huascar, more flexible and liked by the population, but bound to be defeated by his agressive and powersick brother. In the civilwar following these events, the whole empire was rocked by the internal fights, and even as Athaualpa was the victorious part, many held Huascar as the rightfull inherriter of the Inca Rulership.
Background / history.
The Incas was, in the same way as the Aztecs, "newcomers" from nowhere, which managed to put themselves in power over as old, but political fragmented area of high-culture, a short time before the Spanish conquest.
Also, even if they built miles of roads and did the most of the resources, they didnt use any writing language, (suspect that it was only for the temple priest, and a way of keeping the people under control) and didnt have the wheel.
The messengers used a not system called Quipu and this you can read more about in one of my links.
The tradition tells that the Quechua-speaking Incas founded the city of Cuzco around the years of 1200
But it was about 1440 and thereafter that the state of Cuzco began to expand.
And from 1460 and on, this expandation held enough dimension to make the growth of a genuine empire,the largest form of government ever existing in pre-Colombian America.The expansion seem to stop in about 1525, 33 years after Columbus first trip to The New World, and 6 years before Pizarro entered the scene.
Some of the questions must be - How did the Incas enter the domain so fast? Who were they? Why did the expansion of the Inca empire suddenly stop in 1425 and never manage to rise again?
In brief terms "The Inca" is a title,the title of the ruler over the state we call the Inca empire, which really was named "Tawantinsuyu" (Tahuantinsuyu=in Quechua), meaning "The land of four quarters."
As the name tells us, this empire was "the world",the way the world revealed itself for the Aymara and the Quechua-speaking people of the Andean region.
Because the Inca-ruler, the son of the sun, WAS, and had to be the ruler of the universe.And the centre of the universe, where the four latitudes of the sky meet, was Cuzco-the name means "The worlds navel".
Its because The Inca Empire really was the empire "of the middle, like for instance China and other empirical & political units of the same kind.
The term "Inca" is used about the Klan, the ruling dynasty which founded Tawantinsuyu. To these people the cult of ancestry was the founded belief in their religion, and the rapid expandation of land, was partly founded on religion. The Inca did not inherritage anything and had to concur his own land and property, and the people which lived in the areas he gained, was to be the people of his Klan. It is a lot of unsolved questions about the brief 90 years of top wealth of the Inca, but they did have a amazing successes the short time they had the power. The great difference in nature and how they manage to solve these communication-problem, is rather complicated, but thou the Andean area was incredibly difficult to travel by land,and to hold the strings to all corners of the empire, it functioned because of the DIFFERENT but still complementary ecosystems and ecozones.In this situation it was necessary and natural with an interregional chance of merchandise and trading. Trading, trading routes, and markets needed a protective and regulating authority,a head of the state in power. Some reason why the expansion stopped suddenly, was the rainforests of southside mountains,which the Incas soldiers couldnt manage, since they wasnt trained for the climate, and this resulted in great loss of men and forces.Far down in Chile, the "wall" was the Araucan Indians, a strong nomadic people. They didnt give away an inch without struggle.
So, what really happened was that with the end of concurring, the empire was struck by structural crises and later sivilwar, which the Spanish in the middle of, taking the opportunity to defeat the only living Inca, Atahualpa, thou not officially crowned. Its no doubt that his stubborn and conservative ideas, against the more reforming thoughts of his brother Huascar, made the people angry and they did not feel much loyalty after Huascar was killed and Atahualpa was returned to Cuzco by Pizzaro.
LIST OF SOME MAYOR HAPPENINGS:
1492 Columbus enter the history by discovering The West Indies (named because he thought he had found India and thereby the natives was named "indians"
1530-32(?) Huascar dies in sivilwar/Murdered by Atahualpa.
1532 Francisco Pizzaro caught Atahualpa in Cajamarka,and later killed him by garotting. (Strangling).
1533 Pizzaro plundered and concurred Cuzco.
1536 The Spanish placed Inca, Manco run from Cuzco and are lay siege to Cuzco for 10 months, but didnt succeed and had to escape to the mountains of Vilcabamba north of Cuzco (near Machu Picchu.) There they established a "new Inca empire", fighting guerilla and resisting until
1572, when the last Inca TUPAC AMARU was killed by the Spanish. Because of this, the year 1572 represented the end of the world for the indians of Peru, and it might still be the fact, even today.
LATER HISTORIC FACTS OF DESTRUCTION OF THE INCA EMPIRE:
Between 1530 to late 1890 the indian population of America decreased to almost extermination. Some of the reasons was:
-hunger and diseases
-new ecological and religious change
-forced to move in reservation
-the loss of identity and culture
The modern day problem:
- big business and greed
- abuse of indianland
-drugs and alcohol
-poverty and bad social security
-killing of the rainforest
-missionaries paid by rich developing countries and their greedy interest in nature riches
-dumping of acids and shit in the Latin-Americans to save money,
-all products that its too dangerous for us to eat or use are dumped in South America (and all other poor parts of the world.)
-Dumping of dangerous chemicals that we dont want on our land.